ACROPOLIS OF ATHENS
The Acropolis of Athens is an ancient citadel located on an extremely rocky outcrop above the city of Athens and contains the remains of several ancient buildings of great architectural and historic significance, the most famous being the Parthenon. The word acropolis comes from the Greek words akron, “highest point, extremity” and polis, “city”. The rocky hill of the Acropolis, which dominates the center of modern Athens, was the greatest and most magnificent temple of the ancient town, dedicated primarily to its patron goddess, Athena. In this sacred space related the most important myths of ancient Athens, its greatest religious festivals, the oldest city cults and some of the decisive events of history. The monuments of the Acropolis, harmoniously combined with the natural environment, are unique masterpieces of ancient architecture, which reflect innovative styles and trends correlations of classical art and influenced the intellectual and artistic creation for many centuries later.
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The temple that Athenians dedicated to the patron of the city, Athena Virgin, is the most magnificent creation of Athenian democracy at the height of its power and the finest in composition and execution of the buildings of the Acropolis. It was built in the years 447-438 BC, within the larger building program in Acropolis of Pericles initiative, and on the site of earlier temples dedicated to Athena. The (Parthenon III) succeeded an earlier marble temple (Parthenon II), which began to be built after the victory at Marathon, about 490 BC, but was never completed because in 480 BC destroyed by the Persians. This in turn was built in older temple, the first Parthenon (Parthenon I), which was built around 570 BC Today visitors can admire the marble Parthenon of Pericles years, designed by Iktinos with partner Kallikratis. The responsibility of the sculptural decoration and ivory statue of Athena, who was inside, and the whole building of the temple project was the famous Glyptis Feidias.
The Erechtheion or Erechtheum , Modern Greek is an ancient Greek temple on the north side of the Acropolis of Athens in Greece which was dedicated to both Athena and Poseidon. The temple as seen today was built between 421 and 406 BCE. Its architect may have been Mnesicles, and it derived its name from a shrine dedicated to the legendary Greek hero Erichthonius. The sculptor and mason of the structure was Phidias, who was employed by Pericles to build both the Erechtheum and the Parthenon. Some have suggested that it may have been built in honor of the legendary king Erechtheus, who is said to have been buried nearby.
The Propylaea of the Acropolis in Athens were built on the west side of the rock, placed in the position where the gate of the fortress of the Mycenaean citadel. The building is constructed mostly of Pentelic marble and divided into three sections. The main rectangular section is especially propyl. On the east and west sides have two six-column porticoes Doric, between which transverse wall with five ports. The passage of the Acropolis was the main door, flanked between the western portico and the transverse wall, three Ionic columns on each side. The main building followed the uphill and east portico was higher than the west, and so is the gable roof, while the two side buildings were lower. The north wing of the Propylaea consists of one room, known by the description of Pausanias as Gallery (1.22.6), because the hall was decorated with paintings, among them works by Polygnotou Aglaofontos and painters.
THE TEMPLE OF ATHENA NIKE:
The temple of Athena Nike on the southwest side of the Acropolis, in the place where in Mycenaean times there was the tower of the wall that protected the entrance to the citadel. The classic church was built between 426-421 BC designed by architect Kallikratis and isthe successor of earlier temples also dedicated to Athena Nike. The construction of the classical temple of Athena Nike is part of the large building project was accomplished at the Acropolis in the time of Pericles. Important information for its construction gives our inscriptions mainly resolutions of Athens municipality mentioned in this work.
The Brauronion located on the inside of the south wall of the Acropolis, immediately south of the Propylaea. It was sacred to Artemis Vravrona, patroness of interest and mothers, and is thought to act as an annex to the great goddess temple located in Vravrona Attica. Its foundation dates back to the mid 6th century. B.C. and assigned to the tyrant Pisistratus, who came from the area of Vravrona. The main part of the temple was one Doric arcade in Scheme II, with a length of about 38 m and a width of 7 m. It was open to the north with ten columns on the front, while the south rear side follow the path the south wall of the rock. At the ends of the forms two protruding wings closed, measuring approximately 10 x 7 m. Each, are used to keep the “treasure”. To the north the area was closed by precinct, in the northeast corner of which was the entrance to the sanctuary.
THE BEULE GATE:
The Beule gate located on the west side of the Acropolis, west of the Propylaea and is now the main entrance to the archaeological site. Built in the middle of the 3rd century. AD, probably after the devastating raid of the Heruli in 267 AD, in the strengthening of the Acropolis fortification to guard the sacred space of other raids. Then in the area west of the Propylaea constructed a strong wall and two gates, one under the tower of Athena Nike and one in the west, named ” Beule Gate ” by French archaeologist who conducted the investigations in the area in 1852.
THE OLDEST TEMPLE:
The oldest temple on the Acropolis, which was dedicated to Athena Polias and ancient sources referred to as ” ancient newly ”, located in the south of the Erechtheion and the Parthenon north. The ancient temple was Doric peripteral with six columns on the short sides and 12 on the long. The internal layout was quite peculiar. The eastern part consisted of pronaos in antis distyle and nave with two colonnades in divided into three naves. Here housed the wooden statue (statue) of Athena. In the western part there were three rooms dedicated to different cults: Poseidon-Erechtheus, Hephaestus and swim. In this temple attributed the marble pediments with visualization of gigantomachy on display in the Acropolis Museum and the sima, which resulted in lion heads and kriokefales. From the same Parian marble was still the metopes, cornices and tiles of the roof, while the rest of the church was made of limestone.
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